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Ground floorBut important as G. was as an architect, he was possibly even more influential as a teacher. He was a great believer in the intelligent application of standardization and prefabrication, but above all he wanted a building to be the product of teamwork in which each member of the team appreciated fully how his contribution related to the whole design. G. regarded this as a symbol of community living and the intelligent integration of society. Gruen, Victor, b. Vienna (as Viktor Griin-baum) 1903. Studied in Vienna under Peter Behrcns (1924-5). Emigrated to the USA in 1938. Mainly known for his town and country planning projects (e. g. plan for Fort Worth, Texas 1955). His conception of’shopping centres’ was epoch-making; sited out of town and catering for the needs of a car-owning society (Northland Shopping Center, Detroit, 1952), they became prototypes for the American postwar suburban expansion, although he himself advocated striking a balance between private and mass transit. These ideas were developed in his Fort Worth plan and expounded in his Heart of our Cities (New York 1964). Alliance of seven Milanese architects (from the Scuola Superiore di Architettura del Politecnico di Milano): Ubaldo Castagnoli, Luigi Figini, Guido Frette, Sebastiano Larco, Gino Pollini, Carlo Enrico Rava and Giuseppe Terragni.

The group was founded in 1926, but Castagnoli left after several months and was replaced by Adalbcrto Libera. They first came to public attention in 1927 with their exhibition at the Biennale in Monza. In a four-part manifesto, published in 1926-7 in the magazine La Rassegna Italiana, the members declared their withdrawal from a much too ‘romantic’ dependence on the past, as the Italian Futurists (Futurism) had already demanded twelve years earlier, and proposed an ‘Italian’ version of rationalist modernism. Their work was characterized by a balance between a reverence for Le Corbusier’s machine aesthetic on the one hand, and the classical monumentality of Greek temples on the other; the group laid the theoretical groundwork for Italian Ration-alism. In 1928 the M. A.R. (Movimento Architettura Razionale) grew out of the group. This gave birth two years later to the M. I.A. R. (Movimento Italiano per l’Architettura Razionale).

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